Pain in the Achilles tendon is called tendinopathy. It can be caused by tendonitis (inflammation of the tendon) or tendonosis (small tears in the tendon caused by overuse). Tendonosis is more common than tendonitis, however both cause similar pain and discomfort.
Chronic ankle sprains or a feeling that your outer foot "rolls" easily are symptoms of ankle instability. Ankle instability is generally caused by an ankle sprain that did not heal correctly. When an ankle is sprained, the ligaments in the foot are weakened. Generally, we rush back into activity before the injury is properly healed, and allow this problem to escalate. The result is a growing feeling of instability.
Arthritis means 'pain in the joint,' and is commonly seen in the foot and ankle. This condition causes pain, stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion, and difficulty walking.
Athletes foot (also called 'ringworm of the foot,' 'Hong Kong Foot,' and 'tinea pedis') is a common fungal infection. It is characterized by itching and burning on the bottom of the foot, and can take the form of peeling, cracking, and even bleeding.
Bunions are misaligned big tow joints which can become swollen and painful. The deformity causes the first joint to slant outward, and the big toe to slant towards the other toes.
When a child complains of foot or ankle pain, special attention needs to be paid to ascertain its severity. The most common problems in the growing foot are poorly developing arches, common ingrown nails, childhood warts on the feet and hands and injuries potentially causing damage to growth plates.
Corns and Calluses
Corns & Calluses are hard, thick patches of skin that occur when pressure is repeatedly applied to a specific area on the foot. They form when our bodies respond to this uneven pressure or friction on an area of our skin.
Various foot and ankle problems can arise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Poor circulation, neuropathy (decreased feeling), and changes in foot shape can cause ordinary problems to quickly turn into major issues. Other common issues include: extreme dry skin, calluses, and other nerve issues. Patients with diabetes are also more likely to develop ulcers and infections in the feet that can lead to amputation. If you have diabetes, it is recommended that you have your feet checked regularly.
A fungal nail infection usually begins as a yellow spot under the tip of your toenail. From here, it will spread deeper into the nail, causing more advanced discoloration and odor. The nail can also begin to thicken, and start to crumble.
Hammertoe is a condition in which any of the toes, most often the 2nd - 5th digit, are bent in a claw-like position.
Heel spurs (also referred to as 'heel pain' or 'plantar fasciitis') is often traced to faulty biomechanics which place too much strain on the heel bone, ligaments or nerves in the area.
Ingrown toenails are a common form of nail disease, characterized by the toenail growing into the nail bed. Ingrown toenails can cut into the nail bed, causing discomfort, pain, redness, and bleeding.
Metatarsalgia is characterized by inflammation on the ball of the foot. It is a painful condition that can prevent a person from engaging in physical activity.
Neuroma is a very painful condition felt at the front of the foot, often extending to the toes. Generally, the word "neuroma" refers to any swelling of a nerve. A Morton's neuroma is excessive tissue formation around sensory nerves at the base of the second and third, or third and fourth toes. Fibrous tissue forms due to nerve irritation from ligaments exerting pressure, causing swelling, inflammation, pain, and numbness in part of a toe or toes. These ligaments compress the nerve, and the body's natural reaction to the compression is to form excess tissue. However, the excess tissue results in more irritation and compression to the nerve, making the condition and pain worse.
Patients with neuropathy commonly describe their ailment as having a 'burning' or 'tingling' sensation in their feet. These sensations are due to nerve damage in the foot, caused by injuries and infections.
Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammation of the main structural ligament that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes.
Poor circulation occurs when blood flow is limited throughout the body. An ongoing numbing and cramping of the feet, accompanied by redness and swelling near the affected area are good signs of poor circulation.
Stress fracture is a painful microscopic reorganization of bone.
Ulcers are deep sores on the bottom of the feet that worsen over time. There are two main types of ulcers: diabetic, and circulatory.
Plantar warts are contagious. They are caused by a virus and may multiply and spread to adjacent areas of skin. Plantar warts can occur anywhere on the bottom of the foot. They start as solitary warts and then spread over a larger area.
The cornerstone of treatment of most chronic foot pain is with orthotics.